Teambuilding exercises incorporate one or more of four focuses: goal setting, interpersonal relations, role clarification, or problem-solving.
Studies have shown that teambuilding exercises are effective for improving affective outcomes (e.g. trust, confidence, cohesion, psychological safety, and collective efficacy) and process outcomes (e.g. coordination, communication, and adaptability).
The goal setting approach improves the ability to identify, set and achieve individual and team objectives. Teambuilding exercises focusing on interpersonal relations increases teamwork processes and social parameters, such as mutual supportiveness, communication, and the development of team affect. Role clarification improves communication among team members in terms of their respective roles as a part of the team.
The problem-solving approach subsumes aspects of all the above. This type of intervention promotes team synergy through encouraging team members to practice setting goals, developing interpersonal relations, clarifying team roles, and working to improve organizational characteristics through participating in problem-solving tasks.